Early Medieval Art Syllabus

Set book:
J Snyder, Medieval Art, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, and Harry Abrams Inc, New York, 1989

On reserve:
J Beckwith, Early Christian and Byzantine Art, The Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England, 1979

D Wilson, Anglo-Saxon Art, Thames and Hudson Ltd, London, 1984

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1. Course materials etc

SECTION I: The Early Christian Period

The Hope of Salvation
2. (Snyder 1-26; Beckwith 21-22)Request topic for discussion 1

Roman Houses; Domus Ecclesiae; Shrine of St Peter, Rome, late C2; Jonah and the Whale, statuette, C3; Good Shepherd, statuette, C3; Sarcophagus with story of Jonah, Rome, late C3; Projecta Casket, Rome, late C4; Catacomb of Sts Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, C4 (Good Shepherd and Jonah, Adam and Eve frescoes)

Salvation: The Message and Meaning of the Early Christian Basilica
3. (Snyder 27-39; 40-65; 91-3 for Doors: Sta Sabina, Rome, 422-32)

Old St Peter's, Rome, c.324-40 (apse and nave C4?); S Paolo fuori le mure, Rome, 385 (triumphal arch c.450), S Lorenzo fuori le mure, Rome, c.330; Sta Pudenziana, Rome (apse mosaic c.400); Sta Maria Maggiore, Rome, C5; Sts Cosmas and Damian, Rome (apse mosaic c.526-30)

Salvation: Death and Resurrection
4a. (Snyder 28-39; 66-78 for information)

Sta Costanza (mausoleum), Rome, c.350; Lateran Baptistery, Rome, c.315 and c.423-40

Salvation: Early Christian Italian Reliefs
4b. (Snyder 90-96; Beckwith 20-21; reminder, compare units 1 and 2)

Brescia Casket, c. 360-70; Maries at Sepulcher panel, Rome, late C4; Maries and Ascension panel, Rome, late C4/early C5; British Museum Passion Casket, c.420; Wooden Doors, Sta Sabina, Milan, 422-32; Miracles of Christ diptych, Rome, c.475-c.500; Agnus Dei book cover, Milan Cathedral, late C5

Salvation: Early Christian Illustrated Books and Picture Cycles
4c. (Snyder 79-90)

Vatican Vergil, C5; Iliad Ambrosiana, C5; Vienna Dioscurides, 512; St Augustine Gospels, c.600

You should have asked for this topic at unit 2. You did:

Before its legalization, Christianity was not expressed through Roman Imperial imagery and building types, and no other contemporary religion used them either, so it was extraordinary that Constantine sanctioned this for Christianity. What was he saying to the world about Christ and about the Roman Empire through this, and how might the package of message and imagery have affected the spread of Christanity? What is the other big message expressed in Early Christian Art? Use specific examples to illustrate and support your answers.

note: Paper on this topic due on discussion day. See Requirements, Paper Writing, and Grading Policy for help in preparing this.

SECTION II: The Early Byzantine Period (C6 - C9)

Constantinople under Justinian (527-565)
6a. (Snyder 101-105; reminder, compare and contrast unit 3 and 4a)

Imperial Chapels: Hagia Sophia, 532-527; Sts Sergius and Bacchus, by 536

Early Byzantine Illustrated Books and Picture Cycles
6b. (Snyder 83-87; reminder, compare unit 4c)

Vienna Genesis, mid C6; Rossano Gospels, mid C6

Ivories from Constantinople
6c. (Snyder 103-106; 95-96; Beckwith 35-37; reminder, compare unit 4b)

Consular Diptych of Anastasius, 517; St Michael Plaque, early C6; Ariadne Panel, early C6; Barberini Diptych, mid C6; Throne of Maximian, for archbishop of Ravenna, c.547, Adoration Plaque, Coptic, C6

Churches in Ravenna
7a. (Snyder 111-115; reminder compare units 3 and 6a)

Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, c.425-50; Orthodox Baptistery, 450-60; Arian Baptistery, c.500
For many of these: Hallsall's images for Ravenna

7b. (Snyder 115-125; reminder compare units 3, 6a and 6b)

S Apollinare Nuovo, c.500; S Vitale, 546-48; S Apollinare in Classe, c.549

A New Importance for the Virgin
8a. (no reading, but you should have seen these objects in your reading to-date)

Virgin and Child, Catacomb of Commodilla, Rome, c.528; Virgin and Child, Sta Maria Antiqua, Rome, C6-C7; Virgin and Child, apse mosaic, Sta Maria Nova, Rome, redone in C12; Enthroned Virgin and Majesty diptych, Constantinople, mid C6; Virgin and Child, apse mosaic, Euphrasian basilica, Porec, c.550

Icons and Iconoclasm
8b. (Snyder 126-129; Beckwith 37-42)

Transfiguration, apse mosaic, St Catherine, Mt Sinai, Egypt, c.550-65;
St Peter with instruments of the Passion, icon from Constantinople at St Catherine, Mt Sinai, C6 or early C7; Enthroned Virgin with Saints, icon, St Catherine, Mt Sinai, early C7; Virgin Hodegetria, icon, S Maria Nova, Rome, c.640; Christ Pantocrator, icon, St Catherine, Mt Sinai, c.700; Crowned Virgin, icon, Sta Maria in Trastevere, Rome, 705-707

SECTION III: Early Medieval Europe

A: Early Insular Art

For interest Old English Pages: Art and Artifacts - 6th to 11th century mix. Check it out.

The Kings of Northumbria, new converts: what they inherited
9a. (Wilson 9-27; reminder, compare and contrast Constantine's inheritance, unit 2)

The Sutton Hoo ship burial, East Anglia, c.625: note especially the great gold buckle, the purse-lid, the clasps (sort of), the hanging bowls.

Northumbria turns to Iona
Kings of Northumbria: Oswald 634-642; Oswy 642-673; Ecfrith 673-685
9b. (Snyder 175-184; Wilson 29-38)

Cathach of St Columba (a psalter), Iona?, c.600; Durham Gospels A.II.10, Lindisfarne, c.650; Book of Durrow, Ireland, Iona or Northumbria, c.625-64?; Durham Gospels A.II.17, Lindisfarne, by 664?

Consolidation of Insular Art: Iona and Ireland after Whitby (664)
10. (Snyder 185-189; Wilson 120-130)

Ardagh chalice, Ireland, c.700-750; Tara brooch, Ireland, c.700-750; Large Rogart brooch, Scotland, c.750; St Ninian's Isle brooches, Scotland, c.750-800
Book of Kells, Iona or Ireland, c.750-800
Ahenny South Cross, Ireland, c.775-800; Kildalton Cross, Islay, Argyllshire, Scotland, c.800

Northumbria and Southern England turn to Rome
Kings of Northumbria: Aldfrith 685-704; Osred 705-716; Ceolwulf 729-737; Eadberht 737-758
Ask for topic for discussion 2
11. (Snyder 184-186; Wilson 36-49; 72-79; reminder, compare unit 4c and Snyder 20-29)

Northumbria and the North: Codex Amiatinus, Monkwearmouth-Jarrow, c.700; Ruthwell Cross, c.730-750 and its associates
Lindisfarne: Lindisfarne Gospels, Northumbria, 698
Southern England: Stockholm Codex Aureus, c.775, Vespasian Psalter, c.775

B: Early Carolingian Art

Charlemagne, King of the Franks, a new convert: what he inherited
Charlemagne King of the Franks 768
12. (Repeat Snyder 175-181; also read 188-189; 203-204; Wilson 135-38; reminder, compare units 2, 9a and 9b)

Gelasian Sacramentary, Frankish, c.750; Tassilo Chalice, Frankish, Lombardic or Insular?, 788; Lindau Gospels back cover, Frankish, Lombardic or Insular?, c.800; St Denis (royal mausoleum), nr Paris, c.754-775; Fulda, 971-819; Frescoes, S Benedetto, Malles, c.790; Frescoes, St John, Müstair, Switzerland, c.800

Charlemagne, King of the Franks, turns to Rome
Charlemagne King of the Franks 768
13. (Snyder 192-206; reminder, compare units 4a-c and 11)

Early Court/Ada School: Godescalc Evangelistary, 781-83; Dagulf Psalter; before 795; Lindau Gospels, c.800
Ivory: Dagulf Psalter covers, before 795; Bodleian book cover, c.800
Architecture: Aachen Palace Chapel, c.786-c.800, doors c.800, consec 805; St Riquier, Centula, 790-799; Torhalle, Lorsch, c.800

Charlemagne, Holy Roman Emperor, turns to Byzantium
Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor 800-814
14. (Snyder 202-3; 206-8; reminder, compare units 6c, 7a and 7b)

Late Court/Ada School: Soissons Gospels, Ada Gospels, Lorsch Gospels, all c.800
Ivory: Lorsch Gospels covers, c.810
Architecture: Theodulf's Oratory, Germigny-des-Près, consec 806
Palace School: Coronation Gospels, c.800; Aachen Gospels, c.800

You should have asked for this topic at unit 11.

C: Middle Byzantine Art (C9-C13)

The Macedonian Renaissance, or Second Golden Age
16a. (Snyder end 128-133; Beckwith end 85-91; compare Ada school, unit 14)

Standing Virgin, apse mosaic, Church of the Dormition, Nicea, C9; Dominion and Might, vault mosaic, Church of the Dormition, Nicea, C9; Enthroned Virgin, apse mosaic, Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, by 867; Leo VI kneeling before Christ, tympanum mosaic of imperial entrance, Hagia Sophia, late C9; enthroned Virgin with Emperors, tympanum mosaic of narthex door, Hagia Sophia, late C10

Imperial Scriptoria
16b. (Snyder 135-47; compare Ada school, unit 14)

Homilies of Gregory of Nazianzus, for Basil I, Constantinople, 880-882; Paris Psalter, Constantinople?, early C10; Joshua Roll, C10; Menologion of Basil II, 976-1025

C11 Byzantine Churches
17. (Snyder 147-56)

Hosios Lukas, Greece, c.1020; Church of the Dormition, Daphni, c.1080-1100
You should have asked for this topic at unit 13.
Ask for topic for final exam.

SECTION IV: Later Carolingian Art

The Empire Divided
Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor 817-40 had three sons

Lothar I, territory in Lotharingia, Co-Emperor 817-40, Emperor 843-55, succeeded by Lothar II 855-69

Louis the German, territory in "Germany", King 843, Emperor 855-76 (no issue)

Charles the Bald, territory in "France", King 843, Emperor 876-77, succeeded by Charles the Fat 877-887; succeeded by Charles the Simple; last of the line was Louis of Outremer

Louis the Pious, Holy Roman Emperor 814-840
Ebbo, foster brother of Louis, Archbishop of Reims 816-835; 840-845
18. (Snyder 208-219; reminder, compare units 2, 12, 13 and 14)

Architecture: Corvey, consec 822; St Gall, designed 816
Painting at Reims: Ebbo Gospels, 816-845 (pre 835?), Utrecht Psalter, c.835?
Ivory at Reims: Psalter of Charles the Bald covers, c.830?; Prayer book of Charles the Bald covers, c.830?

Lothar I, Co-Emperor 817-840; Holy Roman Emperor 840-855
Drogo, half-brother of Louis the Pious, Bishop of Metz 823-44, Archbishop 844-55
19a. (Snyder 223-224)

Painting, Metz court scriptorium: Drogo Sacramentary, 823-55
Ivory, court school at Metz: Drogo Sacramentary covers, c.840-45

Charles the Bald, King of "France" 843
Adalhard, father-in-law to Louis the Pious, Abbot of Tours 834-44, Abbot of Trier 844-79
19b. (Snyder 219-223; reminder, compare units 4c, 11 and 16)

Painting, Tours and Trier scriptoria: Grandval Bible, Tours, c.840, Vivian Bible, Tours 843-846; Lothar Gospels, Trier 844-51

Charles the Bald, King of "France" 843-77, acquired half Lotharingia 869, Emperor 875-7
19c. (Wilson, color plate 152; compare units 9b, 10 and 11)

Painting, Franco-Saxon school: Second Bible of Charles the Bald, 871-73

20. (Snyder 222-3; 225-9; compare units 4c, 11, 19a and 19b)

Painting, Court school of Charles the Bald: Coronation Sacramentary of Charles the Bald, Metz, c.870; Codex Aureus of St Emmeram, c.870; Bible of S Paolo fuori le mure, c.870
Metalwork, Court school of Charles the Bald: Codex Aureus of St Emmeram top cover, c.870; Lindau Gospels front cover, c.870; Altar frontal, St Denis, c.870 (destroyed)
Ivory: Crucifixion panel, possibly from back cover of Codex Aureus of St Emmeram, c.870


You should have asked for this topic at unit 17.

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