Italian Architecture, Renaissance to Rococo
Art 267

Introduction
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INTRODUCTION

1.
Rediscovery of the Antique
Vitruvius, De Architetura (late C1 BC) and Roman architecture; Brunelleschi in Rome, c.1402 and later

2.
Beauty and Progress
Aquinas, Summa Theologica, c.1245; Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria, 1443-52; Ghiberti, Comentarii, c.1447-55; Brunelleschi and perspective


PART I: CHURCHES

The Central Plan
3.
Early Renaissance: Brunelleschi, Old Sacristy, S Lorenzo, Florence, 1421-28; Pazzi Chapel, Sta Croce, Florence, c.1433-36; Sta Maria degli Angeli, Florence, 1434; Alberti, S Sebastiano, Mantua, 1460
4.
High Renaissance: Leonardo, Studies, c.1490; Bramante, Tempietto, S Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502-11, St Peter's, Rome, 1506
5.
Mannerism: Serlio, Architettura, vol 1, 1542, vol 5, 1551; Vignola, S Andrea in via Flaminia, Rome, 1544, S Anna dei Palafrenieri, Rome, 1572/3
6.
Baroque: Longhena, Sta Maria della Isola, Venice, 1631-87; Pietro da Cortona, SS Martina e Luca, Rome, 1635-50; Borromini, S Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, Rome, 1638 , S Ivo della Sapienza, Rome, 1642-50; Bernini, S Andrea al Quirinale, Rome, 1658-70; Guarini, S Lorenzo, Turin, 1666-87, Chapel of the Holy Shroud, Turin, 1667-94
7.
Rococo: Juvarra, Monastic Church at Superga, nr Turin, 1717-31; Sardi, Sta Maria del Rosario, Marino, 1720
The Long Plan and its Fa&ccedade
8.
Early Renaissance: Brunelleschi, Sto Spirito, Florence, 1434-36; Alberti, Tempio Malatestiana, Rimini, 1450, Sta Maria Novella, fašade, Florence, 1456-70, S Andrea Mantua, 1470 - and some problematic Renaissance fašades
9.
High Renaissance: Bramante, Sta Maria presso S Satiro, Milan, 1470s Mannerism: Michelangelo, Project for fašade of S Lorenzo, Florence, 1517; Vignola, Il Ges¨, Rome, 1568 ; Giacomo della Porta, Fašade of Il Ges¨, Rome, 1573
10.
Baroque: Maderno, Sta Susanna, fašade, Rome, 1597-1603; St Peter's, nave and fašade, Rome, 1636-12; Pietro da Cortona, Sta Maria della Pace, fašade, Rome, 1656-57, Guarini, Unidentified project, c.1670
11.
Rococo: Massari, Chiesa dei Gesuate, Venice, 1726-43; Galilei, S Giovanni Laterano, fašade, Rome, 1732-36; Fuga, Sta Maria Maggiore, fašade, Rome, 1741-43; Gregorini and Passalacqua, Sta Croce in Gerusalemme, fašade, Rome, 1741-44; Vittone, S Chiara, BrÓ, 1742
Oratories
12.
Baroque: Borromini, S Philippo Neri, Rome, 1637-43 Rococo: Passalacqua, SS Annunziata, Rome, 1744-6
Visions of heaven
13.
High Renaissance: Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel ceiling, Vatican, Rome, 1508-10 Mannerism: Michelangelo Last Judgement, Sistine Chapel altar wall, Vatican, Rome, 1536-41; Corregio, Dome, S Giovanni Evangelista, Parma, 1520-24, Dome, Parma Cathedral, 1526-30
14
Baroque: Lanfranco, Dome, S Andrea della Valle, Rome, 1625-27; Bernini, Cornaro Chapel, Sta Maria della Vittoria, Rome, 1645-52; Baciccio, Vault, Il Ges¨, Rome, 1676-79; Pozzo, Vault, S Ignazio, Rome, 1691-94
Rococo: Tiepolo, Translation of the Holy House, church of the Scalzi, Venice, 1744, Institution of the Rosary, church of the Gesuate, Venice


DISCUSSIONS

15.
Why are architectural historians primarily interested in churches at these periods? Relate your answer to the phenomenon of the central plan and the problem of the fašade.
16.
How did the concept of space change and develop throughout these periods? Does church decoration contribute anything to this development?


PART II: TOWN PLANNING

The Town and its Piazzas
18.
Renaissance: Alberti, De Re Aedificatoria, 1443-52; Filarete, Sforzinda, treatise, Milan, 1465; Sansovino, Piazza and Piazzetta, Venice, 1529 ; Laurana, Ideal City, Urbino, c.1450-75; Perugino, Giving the keys to St Peter, Sistine Chapel wall, Vatican, Rome, 1481
19.
Mannerism: Michelangelo, Campidoglio, Rome, 1538-64 Baroque: Bernini, St Peter's Piazza, Rome, 1656 ; Fontana, Project for St Peter's Piazza, Rome, 1694 Rococo: Raguzzini, Piazza di S Ignazio, 1727
Palaces
20.
Renaissance: Michelozzo, Palazzo Medici, Florence, 1444 ; Alberti, Palazzo Rucellai, Florence, c.1455-60; Palazzo Corner-Spinelli, Venice, c.1480; Bramante, House of Raphael, Rome, c.1512
21.
Mannerism: Romano, Palazzo Maccarani, Rome, c.1520, Giulio's own house, Mantua, c.1540; Sanmichele, Palazzo Bevilacqua, Verona, c.1530; Peruzzi, Palazzo Massimo delle Colonne, Rome, 1532 ; Antonio da Sangallo & Michelangelo, Palazzo Farnese, Rome, 1541 ;
22.
Baroque: Bernini, Palazzo Chigi-Odescalchi, Rome, 1664 , Projects for the Louvre, 1664-66; Guarini, Palazzo Carignano, Turin, 1679
23.
Rococo: Juvarra, Palazzo Madama, Turin, 1718-21; Valvassori, Palazzo Doria-Pamphili, Rome, 1730-35; Fuga, Palazzo Cenci-Bolognetti, Rome, c.1745, Palazzo della Consulta, Rome, 1732-7; Bolli, Palazzo Litta, fašade, Milan, 1745
Virtual Environments
24.
Renaissance (landscape and gardens): Mantegna, Camera Picta, Ducal Palace, Urbino, 1465-74 Baroque (apotheosis): Pietro da Cortona, Triumph of the Barberini, Palazzo Barberini, Rome, 1633-39; Maratta, Triumph of Clemency, Palazzo Altieri, Rome, 1670s; Giordano, Apotheosis of the Medici Dynasty, Palazzo Medici-Ricardi, Florence, 1682-83
Civic Buildings
25.
Mannerism: Sansovino, Library, Venice, 1537 ; Palladio, The Basilica, Vicenza, 1549 Rococo: de Sanctis, Spanish Stairs, Rome, 1723-5; Salvi, Trevi Fountain, Rome, 1732-62


DISCUSSION

26.
What drove the increasing interest in and elaboration of the town house (or palace) at these periods? What ideas were taken over from church design and how were they adapted? Are there any concepts which appeared in palaces before they appeared in churches?


PART III: THE HUMANIST VILLA

Background
27.
Ovid, Fasti, 2-8 AD; Vergil, Eclogues, 42-37 BC; Pliny, Naturalis Historia, book 35, 79AD; Pompeiian wall paintings, 79 AD (excavations began 1748); Poussin, Landscape with the Burial of Phocion, 1648; Marsilio Ficino and the Platonic "Academy", Florence, c.1462-99
The Farmhouse
28.
Early Renaissance: Guiliano da Sangallo, Villa Poggio a Caiano, 1480s Mannerism: Sansovino, Villa Garzone, Pontecasale, c.1540; Palladio, Villa Maser, c.1560 Rococo: Preti, Villa Pisani, Stra, 1725-56
The Farmhouse's Virtual Environment (the walls)
29.
Mannerism: Veronese, Villa Maser, 1560s Baroque: Domenichino, Villa Androbrandini, Frascati, 1616-18 Rococo: Tiepolo, Villa Valmarana, Vicenza, 1757
The Grandiose
30.
High Renaissance: Bramante, Cortile Belvedere, Vatican, Rome, 1505 Mannerism: Raphael, Villa Madama, Rome, c.1516 ; Romano, Palazzo del Te, Mantua, 1525 ; Vignola, Villa Giulia, Rome, 1551 ; Ligorio, Villa d'Este, Rome, c.1565-72
31.
Rococo: Juvarra, Royal Hunting Palace, Stupingi, 1729-33
The Suburbana
32.
Mannerism: Peruzzi, Villa Farnesina, Rome, 1509-11; Palladio, Villa Rotonda, Vicenza, c.1550; Ligorio, Casino di Pio IV, Rome, 1559 Baroque: Pietro da Cortona, Villa Pigneto, Rome, 1629 Rococo: Marchionni, Villa Albani, Rome, 1748-62
The Suburbana's Virtual Environment (the ceiling)
32.
Renaissance: Peruzzi, Sala delle Prospettive, Villa Farnesina, 1509-11 Mannerism: Raphael, Sala di Psiche, Villa Farnesina, 1518-19; Baroque: Reni, Casino Rospigliosi, Rome, 1613-14; Guercino, Casino Ludovisi, Rome, 1621; Lanfranco, Villa Borghese, 1624-25


DISCUSSION

33.
What connections can you see between the Humanist villa and poetry? What universal issues does the poetry address, and how do these issues compare with biblical ones? Demonstrate and account for the relationship between church design and villa design.


CONCLUDING DISCUSSIONS

The Continuing Conundrum
35.
Authenticity for an unauthentic purpose (churches), and its knock-on effect on town planning, palace and villa design.
The Drive to reform and to progress
34.
Brunelleschi, Bramante, and Pietro da Cortona stand at the beginning of their periods. Each was a Classical purist and reformer, each was addressing the same conundrum. Why does their architecture look different?
Man the Measure of All Things?
35.
The Early Renaissance marked a dramatic change in world view, a political revolution which allowed ordinary people to believe they could affect their own destinies. The last time people felt like that was in Roman times. Is it a coincidence that Roman ideas and architectural forms were adopted in the Early Renaissance? We have looked at three cycles of reform, innovation, elaboration and exhaustion. The next cycle (neoclassicism) was abandoned in its infancy. What dramatic change in world view occurred during the later 18th century which could account for this? What architectural style was revived in its place?


Introduction
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